The 2005-2006 National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3), the third in the NFHS series of surveys, provides information on population, health and nutrition in India and each of its 29 states. The survey is based on a sample of households which is representative at the national and state levels. NFHS-3 provides trend data on key indicators and includes information on several new topics, such as HIV/AIDS-related behaviour and the health of slum populations. For the first time, NFHS-3 also provides information on men and unmarried women. In addition, HIV prevalence is measured at the national level and for selected states. This fact sheet presents provisional information on key indicators and trends at the national level. The NFHS-3 fieldwork was conducted by 18 research organizations between December 2005 and August 2006.